Hello Champions! Let me ask you a question... What makes a difference in people's lives and how come certain people achieve success in internet marketing and others don't? Did you know... There FOUR types of people in internet marketing; 1. The "Catcher" 2. The "Consumer" 3. The "Critic" and 4. The _________ <== these guys make the most money Which are YOU? Watch this must-see video. #champions

In the end, most customers do not remember the seller much less the card, so this marketing method does not work to convince buyers to return. This is different with internet marketing where the marketers can easily collect email addresses of their prospects and buyers, which they can use in reaching out and forming a relationship with the customer.


VigLink is an intermediary platform, so it can serve as a backdoor for affiliates who have previously been banned/suspended from working with other affiliate programs like Amazon. And while you can choose specific merchants or offers, VigLink can be set up to work automatically by scanning your published content and dynamically generating affiliate links, making it a great choice for established content producers who are looking for a simpler way to generate revenue via an affiliate program.
Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!
Your brand is delicate. It can be compared to rare lily, having to be coaxed carefully and softly into full bloom. What does that mean for your brand? You have to very deliberately curate and grow it, avoiding the many pitfalls that even big brand often fall into. One single brand image problem and you could lose a chunk of your user base. A good strategy for cultivating a strong… [Read More…]
Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.
In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon.com sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[45] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.
As long as you build relationships in the right way, communicating with people via email is one of the best, if not the best way to directly reach out to people and communicate your marketing messages to them. I find it a highly effective way of letting people engage with you on a one-to-many basis whilst also enabling a two-way communication channel to be opened up. The new functionalities of GetResponse such as being able to conduct surveys also gives me another channel to interact with people on my mailing list.
Unlike mass marketing, which effectively piques the interest of the local audience by means of radio spots, newspapers and print media, internet marketing allows companies to nurture a more personal relationship with their consumers from all over the world. With internet marketing, businesses can deliver content to their customers through personalized and cost-effective communication.
Are you frustrated with the lack of responses and results from your marketing efforts? Unless your marketing campaign results have hockey-sticked  over the past 12 months, then chances are that you’re missing a very important step – persona building. In this article you will find a complete and detailed persona building guide to help yield better,…
In effect, VigLink works as the middleman between a publisher (blogger) and merchants by scanning the publisher’s content and automatically creating links to publishers that are chosen “in real time” based on their payout/conversation rates. This makes VigLink a very hands-off affiliate program for publishers who prefer to focus on content instead of managing their affiliate links.
Start by thinking about your audience. What kinds of products or services are they most interested in? Which products or services are you currently using that you would feel comfortable recommending to your readers? You can add links to any affiliate program to your site, but if you want to market them with authenticity, it’s best to stick to companies with which you already have some kind of connection.

One big difference between SkimLinks and VigLinks, however, is that once you’re approved by the company, you can choose to work with any merchant or program on its platform. SkimLinks has also published a white paper discussing its partnership with Buzzfeed, giving SkimLinks a lot of credibility. SkimLinks also has a higher tier of vetted merchants called “Preferred Partner” and “VIP” that both pay higher commissions than standard merchants.
An affiliate marketing program is a lot of work, and in most situations there's a lot of competition so you're not going to be bringing in money immediately. Business owners and entrepreneurs suppose that all you need do is setup a site and choose an affiliate to associate with and then just let it run its course. But according to Three Ladders Marketing, only 0.6% of affiliate marketers surveyed have been in the game since 2013. That means that affiliate marketing takes time and effort to build and make money.
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]
But it literally changed my life… I moved out of my parent’s house (sigh) into a nice studio in downtown Denver, bought my first car (a Mercedes c300), adopted 2 kitties, and my credit raised 45 points. I also donated $6,000 to GoFundMe campaigns. I’m a humble dude but in affiliate marketing, the numbers do the talking. So… I want to show you how I did it. Enjoy!

He is the owner of jeffbullas.com. Forbes calls him a top influencer of Chief Marketing Officers and the world's top social marketing talent. Entrepreneur lists him among 50 online marketing influencers to watch. Inc.com has him on the list of 20 digital marketing experts to follow on Twitter. Oanalytica named him #1 Global Content Marketing Influencer. BizHUMM ranks him as the world's #1 business blogger. Learn More
A relative newcomer that was only founded in 2014, ConvertKit has taken the world of email marketing by storm. According to the company, they now have nearly 20,000 active customers of their email services. Their affiliate program works by paying existing customers a lifetime 30 percent commission for referrals that subsequently become ConvertKit customers or who sign up for ConvertKit webinars and other digital products.
Online reviews have become one of the most important components in purchasing decisions by consumers in North America. According to a survey conducted by Dimensional Research which included over 1000 participants, 90% of respondents said that positive online reviews influenced their buying decisions and 94% will use a business with at least four stars. Interestingly, negative reviews typically came from online review sites whereas Facebook was the main source of positive reviews. Forrester Research predicts that by 2020, 42% of in-store sales will be from customers who are influenced by web product research.

The internet offers boundless possibilities for earning a living online. Upwork and Freelancers Union found that 35% of the American workforce was doing some type of freelance work in 2016, and 73% said technology made it easier to find that work. One of the ways to harness the internet as an income source is pursuing affiliate marketing. It’s intended as a way to generate passive income, but does it really work? Let’s consider. 
Michael Cheney catapulted into the Internet marketing spotlight after the successful launch of his AdSense Videos (aff) course. Shortly after completing the launch of this product Michael released another set of videos for free which offered a behind the scenes look into what happened during the days leading up to the product launch and during the launch. It was quite fascinating to watch the money come in and see what goes on in the background of a product launch online.
Deliver value no matter what: Regardless of who you are and what you're trying to promote, always deliver value, first and foremost. Go out of your way to help others by carefully curating information that will assist them in their journey. The more you focus on delivering value, the quicker you'll reach that proverbial tipping point when it comes to exploding your fans or followers.

Social media marketing: In an increasingly connected world where consumers expect the companies they do business with to engage with them, social media is an ideal way to interact with prospects and customers. The key to social media marketing success is focusing on the platforms where you're most likely to find your target market, whether it's Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, or Pinterest. To make sure you're not wasting time with your social media efforts, develop a strategy and content plan, and research tools that will help make the posting easier, such as Hootsuite or Buffer.
More recently, companies have sought to merge their advertising messages into editorial content or valuable services. Examples include Red Bull's Red Bull Media House streaming Felix Baumgartner's jump from space online, Coca-Cola's online magazines, and Nike's free applications for performance tracking.[18] Advertisers are also embracing social media[22][23] and mobile advertising; mobile ad spending has grown 90% each year from 2010 to 2013.[24]:13
This is Simon, thank you for your post, it is very helpful for me. However, we are a lighting company, and we are plan to try the Affiliate Website to increase our sale. But it seem that there are many different Affiliate website to be chose and some of them also need pay some fee to begin, so as we just begin to do this, which website is your recommend ?

Search engines are a powerful channel for connecting with new audiences. Companies like Google and Bing look to connect their customers with the best user experience possible. Step one of a strong SEO strategy is to make sure that your website content and products are the best that they can be. Step 2 is to communicate that user experience information to search engines so that you rank in the right place. SEO is competitive and has a reputation of being a black art. Here’s how to get started the right way.


Our SEM team has been managing paid search since its inception and is driven solely by analytics and financial data. Our core focus is to expand our clients’ campaigns, drive quality traffic that will foster conversions and increase revenue, while decreasing the cost per acquisition. IMI’s PPC team members are recognized thought leaders, active bloggers and speakers and major tradeshows, and care deeply about each and every client. We manage our client’s budgets as if it was our own, tracking every dollar and optimizing towards very specific milestones and metrics.
The advantages of the affiliate marketing business model for the affiliate are quite obvious to anyone. Having the opportunity to effectively ‘sell stock’ without having any of the costs or responsibilities of manufacturing, buying or storing it is very liberating. In addition to this, when working with a high-paying network like MoreNiche, the profit potential is enormous.
Online marketing platform (OMP) is an integrated web-based platform that combines the benefits of a business directory, local search engine, search engine optimisation (SEO) tool, customer relationship management (CRM) package and content management system (CMS). Ebay and Amazon are used as online marketing and logistics management platforms. On Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, LinkedIn, and other Social Media, retail online marketing is also used. Online business marketing platforms such as Marketo, Aprimo, MarketBright and Pardot have been bought by major IT companies (Eloqua-Oracle, Neolane-Adobe and Unica-IBM).
There’s definitely money to be made with what they teach but because you’re 100% dependent on paid traffic, its also big risks and doing affiliate on paid traffic is definitely not the easiest business model out there because you’re only working with very slim margins. Anyway here’s an example of an Ad I created with Gerry and my MentorMe coach Nick.
What struck me about Dr. Rose’s experience was how affiliate marketing attracts everyone — from those with no degrees (but with strong work ethics), to those who are fully degreed (and pedigreed), but who want to do their own thing. Dr. Rose stated in that post that her mission was to earn what she earned as a pharmacist in a year — in one month in affilite marketing/blogging.
On Facebook you will have the opportunity to brand yourself as well. It is important people like and trust you before they decide to buy from you. People with similar interests will relate to you when you share your photographs and hobbies. Facebook users upload more than 250 million photos to the website each day. There are many business groups on Facebook. You may want to start a business group yourself. Business people will want you to give them business tips to help them focus on making money.
Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. If you only promote one merchant’s products, you are stuck with their commissions, their landing pages, and ultimately, their conversion rates. It is important to work with many different merchants in your niche and promote a wide range of products. This affiliate marketing strategy will diversify the amount of commissions you make and create a steady stream of revenue when building an affiliate website. 
I always feel like this was and still is the best blog ever created. This is because of the unique way the blog is posed. The posts have a conversational tone that humanizes the content and makes it easily understandable. It’s an authoritative site, loaded with inbound marketing strategy, templates, infographics, analytics and landing page tips. In this content marketing blog, you will find posts covering SEO advice, sales, academy, web design and social marketing. It’s a one stop shopping parlor that I recommend checking out.
Display advertising - As the term infers, Online Display Advertisement deals with showcasing promotional messages or ideas to the consumer on the internet. This includes a wide range of advertisements like advertising blogs, networks, interstitial ads, contextual data, ads on the search engines, classified or dynamic advertisement etc. The method can target specific audience tuning in from different types of locals to view a particular advertisement, the variations can be found as the most productive element of this method.
Well, not so fast. Sure, that sounds great, but every job has its downsides and its difficulties. Lawyers and doctors have prestigious jobs, but they must spend years — usually over a decade — in school (which isn’t cheap, either!). Kindergarten teachers shape the minds of the future, but they also have to deal with tantrums and the downfalls that come with teaching for a living. Construction workers get paid well but can also count on a lot of physical labor on the job as well as safety concerns.

We all look out for honest insights that answer our intriguing questions and provide bold insights on content marketing. This blog will definitely satisfy your curiosity if you are an influencer interested in digital marketing information. The sites’ blog posts share in-depth industry knowledge and experiences and have a unique approach to brands, agencies, publishers, and platforms from novel angles.

I’d stick with Amazon if I were you. All of my Amazon sites only have Amazon affiliate links. If you use Google Adsense display ads on your site, you’re literally taking people away from your site for the sake of just a few cents with these type of ads. If you direct them just to Amazon, then you have a greater chance of earning more money from that click.

Despite its older origins, email marketing is still a viable source of affiliate marketing income. Some affiliates have email lists they can use to promote the seller’s products. Others may leverage email newsletters that include hyperlinks to products, earning a commission after the consumer purchases the product. Another method is for the affiliate to cultivate email lists over time. They use their various campaigns to collect emails en masse, then send out emails regarding the products they are promoting.
Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[41] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[42]
Digital marketing planning is a term used in marketing management. It describes the first stage of forming a digital marketing strategy for the wider digital marketing system. The difference between digital and traditional marketing planning is that it uses digitally based communication tools and technology such as Social, Web, Mobile, Scannable Surface.[58][59] Nevertheless, both are aligned with the vision, the mission of the company and the overarching business strategy.[60]
By using the Facebook tracking pixel or the Adwords pixel, you can help to define your audience and work to entice them to come back to your site. Let's say the didn't finish their purchase or they simply showed up and left after adding something to their shopping cart, or they filled out a lead form and disappeared, you can re-target those individuals.

Is your brand ready to leverage the boom of wearable technology? Wearable technology is already impacting the future of Internet marketing and thus, advertisers are investing resources to stay ahead of the curve. To understand where the marketing industry is going with wearable tech, you need to understand where wearable technology came from, how the…
Don’t set a goal to write 3 blog posts a day… set a goal to write 1 blog post a week and make that post super helpful, long, and filled with information that is so valuable you will say “yeah, people will link to that.” 90% of my traffic/affiliate income comes from just 20 tutorials, many of which are 5+ years old. But I am constantly updating them to make the content better.
Overall I would say that this is a no fluff no BS quality internet marketing system for newbies as well as those experienced internet marketers looking for more ways to increase their earnings online, all in one place. It's really cool that I can get access to his system as soon as payment has been processed which is virtually immediate and I can learn at the comfort of my home. When I need to revise the materials, I can use them over and over again. He has streamlined and shortcut much of the journey that can minimize much frustrations, save precious time and money!
The course work of a marketing program will consist of real-world and hands-on components, such as case studies of both successful and failed marketing campaigns, and simulated businesses marketed by students using the concepts they have learned. This will include diving into several computer programs like Adobe InDesign and Dreamweaver, as well as both free and proprietary website analytics software.

The downside is that Shopify is only appealing for people who have physical or digital products to sell and have a need to set up a Shopify store, including site hosting, payment processing, and all the other services offered by Shopify. This can significantly narrow the appeal for this affiliate program. But if you can distinguish yourself by educating people on how to use Shopify, how it can benefit their business, and/or make them money, you could potentially big money via the affiliate program. Add in the 2 x monthly fee commission rate, and landing just a few sales of their mid-tier and top-tier products can result in significant earnings.

I come from an unsuccessful background of web design/SEO. I blogged because I knew it was good for SEO, but my articles didn’t monetize. I took a leap of faith and dropped my clients to figure out blogging/affiliate marketing. I was good at website speed optimization and knew hosting was the #1 factor. After some research, I saw SiteGround was #1 in most Facebook polls and had a great reputation with generous affiliate commissions. So I wrote tutorials on website speed… how to configure WordPress cache plugins, hosting reviews, and other speed-related topics. Usually near the end of a post I would say “Oh, here’s why you should switch to SiteGround” with evidence on why they’re the best… polls, tweets, load time improvements, etc. That’s when things got good. Now I have 0 clients and the freedom to do live my life. I wrote this tutorial because I’m actually excited to help people do the same – without the BS.

An influencer is an individual who holds the power to impact the purchasing decisions of a large segment of the population. This person is in a great position to benefit from affiliate marketing. They already boast an impressive following, so it’s easy for them to direct consumers to the seller’s products through social media posts, blogs, and other interactions with their followers. The influencers then receive a share of the profits they helped to create.
Over the last 20 years, I have seen lots of training courses. I agree with most of your experts. Site Build It was the first good training course I took shortly after Ken Envoy launched it. I have gone the Affiliorama route and thought it was a good program for beginners. At the time I took the course, there weren’t many options for niches. I have heard good things about Chris Farrell’s program but personally have not taken it. Wealthy Affiliate is by far the best program. Members learn to build an online business regardless of the niche(s) they select. Wealthy Affiliate also has a very strong support system in place. The active community of members means people can get their questions answered quickly.
Paid channel marketing is something you’ve probably come across in some form or another. Other names for this topic include Search Engine Marketing (SEM), online advertising, or pay-per-click (PPC) marketing. Very often, marketers use these terms interchangeably to describe the same concept — traffic purchased through online ads. Marketers frequently shy away from this technique because it costs money. This perspective will put you at a significant disadvantage. It’s not uncommon for companies to run PPC campaigns with uncapped budgets. Why? Because you should be generating an ROI anyway. This chapter walks through the basics of how.
Marketing has changed more in the past 10 years than it had in the previous 100—launching us out of the age of TV spots and print ads and into the age of websites, online video, social media, and Google. Consumers today are connected to the web 24/7—U.S. adults now spend upwards of 6 hours per day consuming digital media, and that doesn’t count those whose jobs are internet-dependent.
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]
This is simplified, according to the IAB. Exchanges may try to unload unsold ("remnant") space at low prices through other exchanges. Some agencies maintain semi-permanent pre-cached bids with ad exchanges, and those may be examined before going out to additional demand side platforms for bids. The process for mobile advertising is different and may involve mobile carriers and handset software manufacturers.[46]
A quick and inexpensive method of making money without the hassle of actually selling a product, affiliate marketing has an undeniable draw for those looking to increase their income online. But how does an affiliate get paid after linking the seller to the consumer? The answer is complicated. The consumer doesn’t always need to buy the product for the affiliate to get a kickback. Depending on the program, the affiliate’s contribution to the seller’s sales will be measured differently. The affiliate may get paid in various ways:

Additionally Facebook can give you the needed tools you'll need to target the best demographics for the product or service you are promoting. You will be able to share your videos as well as your photos on Facebook. Do personalize your Facebook page, make it unique so that it will be remembered and liked. It is possible to syndicate your blogs and website through rss feeds. Use advertisements to promote your products and services.
While Derek Halpern’s blog about growing an online business, Social Triggers, doesn’t have marketers as its primary target audience (that would be online business owners), nonetheless it’s a good blog for marketers to follow. Since a big part of running a successful online business is digital marketing, plenty of his posts tackle suggestions on how to do it well.
An incredible thorough blog with a focus on data and metrics, with detailed posts about analytics and marketing and examples to back up any conclusions. With the frequent emerging SEO techniques, this is a great blog to check out because it publishes almost weekly. It offers detailed coverage from all angles on content marketing, SEO and analytics. It’s one of the best internet marketing blogs. 
While any “regular” job requires you to be at work to make money, affiliate marketing offers you the ability to make money while you sleep. By investing an initial amount of time into a campaign, you will see continuous returns on that time as consumers purchase the product over the following days and weeks. You receive money for your work long after you’ve finished it. Even when you’re not in front of your computer, your marketing skills will be earning you a steady flow of income.
Community Support: The number one thing I personally believe makes Wealthy Affiliate stand out as the best affiliate marketing training is the community. Wealthy Affiliate has a large network of people they’ve helped at different stages of success that you can tap for real-world expertise. This large community of affiliate marketers help answer questions, shares their tips for success and is an instant professional network you can utilize to help grow your business.
VigLink is an intermediary platform, so it can serve as a backdoor for affiliates who have previously been banned/suspended from working with other affiliate programs like Amazon. And while you can choose specific merchants or offers, VigLink can be set up to work automatically by scanning your published content and dynamically generating affiliate links, making it a great choice for established content producers who are looking for a simpler way to generate revenue via an affiliate program.

Paid channel marketing is something you’ve probably come across in some form or another. Other names for this topic include Search Engine Marketing (SEM), online advertising, or pay-per-click (PPC) marketing. Very often, marketers use these terms interchangeably to describe the same concept — traffic purchased through online ads. Marketers frequently shy away from this technique because it costs money. This perspective will put you at a significant disadvantage. It’s not uncommon for companies to run PPC campaigns with uncapped budgets. Why? Because you should be generating an ROI anyway. This chapter walks through the basics of how.


It was for $1.49. I had to pay a few people to help me out. So I’m actually still in the negative but I’m hoping consistency is going to pay off. I focused mostly on social media because I knew my site wasn’t going to be ranked very high more then likely for awhile. It’s been fun overall. I try to stay active researching and adding posts at least a few times a week.


Does your company have an in-house marketing team, but still feel lacking in the mastery of digital marketing and SEO? Whether you have an enterprise-level company, run a large association, or head the marketing team at a major organization, custom-designed strategy and analytics consulting may be just what you need! Contact us and mention you need consulting.
Are you an expert in conversion optimisation, sales funnels, SEO, website building, copywriting and proofreading? If so, you have a better chance than most newcomers. Chances are, if you’ve only just heard about affiliate marketing, you don’t have all or even any of these skills just yet. In this case, settle down for the long haul. This is going to take some time, but you will get there – as long as you don’t give up along the way!
There’s no avoiding it: internet marketing is critical for the success of your business in 2018. But with all the gimmicks and tricks, it can be difficult to distinguish short-term wins from effective long-term strategies, which is why we’ve created an ultimate guide. Here, we’ll cover everything from marketing strategies to real-world examples, to ensure your business reaches the right people out of that four billion.

Website Development Help – need help setting up your theme? I’ve been working with the same 2 developers for 3+ years. To hire them, sign up for a Freelancer account, post your job (WordPress theme installation) then invite user i333 or bdkamol to your project. If you want, contact me and I will introduce you to them via email. Both are great developers with reasonable rates, speak fluent English, and I outsource all my programming work to them.
DisabledGO, an information provider for people with disabilities in the UK and Ireland, hired Agency51 to implement an SEO migration strategy to move DisabledGO from an old platform to a new one. By applying 301 redirects to old URLS, transferring metadata, setting up Google webmaster tools, and creating a new sitemap, Agency 51 was able to successfully transfer DisabledGO to a new platform while keeping their previous SEO power alive. Additionally, they were able to boost visitor numbers by 21% year over year, and the site restructuring allowed DisabledGO to rank higher than competitors. Their case study is available on SingleGrain.com.
Brand awareness has been proven to work with more effectiveness in countries that are high in uncertainty avoidance, also these countries that have uncertainty avoidance; social media marketing works effectively. Yet brands must be careful not to be excessive on the use of this type of marketing, as well as solely relying on it as it may have implications that could negatively harness their image. Brands that represent themselves in an anthropomorphizing manner are more likely to succeed in situations where a brand is marketing to this demographic. "Since social media use can enhance the knowledge of the brand and thus decrease the uncertainty, it is possible that people with high uncertainty avoidance, such as the French, will particularly appreciate the high social media interaction with an anthropomorphized brand." Moreover, digital platform provides an ease to the brand and its customers to interact directly and exchange their motives virtually.[33]
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