And finally, while a great community already exists, if you use this link to create your free account I will personally be notified, at which point, I will shoot you a quick message saying hello and offering some free mentoring. So check out Wealthy Affiliate using my affiliate link and once you get inside, be sure to reply to my welcome message and introduce yourself!
You’ll own all your deliverables, including your website. Some cheap internet marketing companies offer “free” websites with their services, or offer websites hosted on their “proprietary platform.” These are red flags that indicate you’re about to be handcuffed into an unfavorable contract. You can learn more about website ownership clauses here >>
Our SEM team has been managing paid search since its inception and is driven solely by analytics and financial data. Our core focus is to expand our clients’ campaigns, drive quality traffic that will foster conversions and increase revenue, while decreasing the cost per acquisition. IMI’s PPC team members are recognized thought leaders, active bloggers and speakers and major tradeshows, and care deeply about each and every client. We manage our client’s budgets as if it was our own, tracking every dollar and optimizing towards very specific milestones and metrics.
You’ll own all your deliverables, including your website. Some cheap internet marketing companies offer “free” websites with their services, or offer websites hosted on their “proprietary platform.” These are red flags that indicate you’re about to be handcuffed into an unfavorable contract. You can learn more about website ownership clauses here >>
Affiliate marketing has taken the world by storm and people are rushing into it and making sure they do not miss out. This online money making frenzy has however lead to a huge flooding of the market. Everyone is selling and no one is buying, well maybe that is an exaggeration a bit but at least that’s what it feels like when you promote an affiliate product but don’t get any sells. In fact it has arrived at a stage whereby promoters are now spamming heavily just to make a few sales. This has made it even worse for newbies who want to get into the system and make some money too. Michael Cheney’s The Commission Machine guarantees that affiliate marketers make money online without too much of hustle, this includes even newbies themselves.
Quality content is more likely to get shared. By staying away from creating "thin" content and focusing more on content that cites sources, is lengthy and it reaches unique insights, you'll be able to gain Google's trust over time. Remember, this happens as a component of time. Google knows you can't just go out there and create massive amounts of content in a few days. If you try to spin content or duplicate it in any fashion, you'll suffer a Google penalty and your visibility will be stifled.
Game advertising - In-Game advertising is defined as "inclusion of products or brands within a digital game."[50] The game allows brands or products to place ads within their game, either in a subtle manner or in the form of an advertisement banner. There are many factors that exist in whether brands are successful in their advertising of their brand/product, these being: Type of game, technical platform, 3-D and 4-D technology, game genre, congruity of brand and game, prominence of advertising within the game. Individual factors consist of attitudes towards placement advertisements, game involvement, product involvement, flow or entertainment. The attitude towards the advertising also takes into account not only the message shown but also the attitude towards the game. Dependent of how enjoyable the game is will determine how the brand is perceived, meaning if the game isn't very enjoyable the consumer may subconsciously have a negative attitude towards the brand/product being advertised. In terms of Integrated Marketing Communication "integration of advertising in digital games into the general advertising, communication, and marketing strategy of the firm"[50] is an important as it results in a more clarity about the brand/product and creates a larger overall effect.
This is simplified, according to the IAB. Exchanges may try to unload unsold ("remnant") space at low prices through other exchanges. Some agencies maintain semi-permanent pre-cached bids with ad exchanges, and those may be examined before going out to additional demand side platforms for bids. The process for mobile advertising is different and may involve mobile carriers and handset software manufacturers.[46]
As of October 2018 almost 4.2 billion people were active internet users and 3.4 billion were social media users (Statista). China, India and the United States rank ahead all other countries in terms of internet users. This gives a marketer an unprecedented number of customers to reach with product and service offerings, available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The interactive nature of the internet facilitates immediate communication between businesses and consumers, allowing businesses to respond quickly to the needs of consumers and changes in the marketplace.
Quality content is more likely to get shared. By staying away from creating "thin" content and focusing more on content that cites sources, is lengthy and it reaches unique insights, you'll be able to gain Google's trust over time. Remember, this happens as a component of time. Google knows you can't just go out there and create massive amounts of content in a few days. If you try to spin content or duplicate it in any fashion, you'll suffer a Google penalty and your visibility will be stifled.
Previously known as Affiliate Window but now officially referred to as “AWIN” after acquiring Zanox a few years ago, this network claims to work with over 13,000 active advertisers and 100,000 publishers (affiliates). Founded in Germany, AWIN’s merchants primarily hail from Europe (especially Great Britain) although the U.S. network is growing rapidly. AWIN is currently active in 11 countries.
Organic SEO's flip-side offers up a paid method for marketing on search engines like Google. SEM provides an avenue for displaying ads through networks such as Google's Adwords and other paid search platforms that exist across the web throughout social media sites like Facebook, Instagram and even video sites like YouTube, which, invariably, is the world's second largest search engine.
When running PPC ads, it's important that you keep careful track of the specific ads and keywords that you're targeting. You can do this by using the Google Analytics UTM builder to create campaign URLs that you can use to track the campaign source, the medium and any keywords or terms that you might be targeting. This way, you can determine the effectiveness of any campaign that you run and figure out the precise conversion rate.
Jim Boykin blows my mind every time I talk to him. I have been doing SEO for 15 years and yet I am amazed at the deep stuff Jim comes up with. Simply amazing insights and always on the cutting edge. He cuts through the BS and tells you what really works and what doesn't. After our chat, I grabbed my main SEO guy and took him to lunch and said "you have to help me process all this new info..." I was literally pacing around the room...I have so many new ideas to experiment with that I would never have stumbled onto on my own. He is the Michael Jordan or the Jerry Garcia of links...Hope to go to NY again to Jim's amazing SEO classes. Thanks Jim! Michael G.
Shopify is a very popular site building platform for people interested in building eCommerce stores. It has been around for the past few years and seen significant growth in its user base over this time. You can earn a staggering 200% per sale for every new customer you refer to them, which means that there is up to $2400 per new customer on offer.
MozBar – MozBar is a Google Chrome extension that lets you Google any keyword and see how competitive the search results are. The higher the DA (domain authority) and PA (page authority) the more competitive the keyword is. However you still want to click on the top results and browse the content to make sure you can creating an article/video that is better than whoever’s in the top results. That is really what “researching the competition” is all about.
The Spin Sucks blog covers digital marketing and PR from a perspective of keeping marketing ethical—steering marketers away from the “spin doctor” label. The blog doesn’t stick exclusively to digital marketing topics, but gets into networking tips and productivity advice alongside posts on SEO and UX. Basically, if it’s valuable to marketers then it’s fair game for the Spin Sucks blog.
As mentioned earlier, technology and the internet allows for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week service for customers as well as enabling them to shop online at any hour of that day or night, not just when the shops are over and across the whole world. This is a huge advantage for retailers to use it and direct customers from the store to its online store. It has also opened up an opportunity for companies to only be online based rather than having an outlet or store due to the popularity and capabilities of digital marketing.

#1. Wealthy Affiliate - Wealthy Affiliate is my top choice for anyone interested in learning how to create an online business. The training is the best out there and websites and hosting are all included in the program. They also have a free option to join without a credit card so that you can see what is available in the program before you purchase.
Year after year, the field of SEO gets more sophisticated, driving companies to employ a combination of proven strategies and new techniques just to get in front of SERPs. Developments in the search optimization industry such as semantic search, artificial Intelligence, and visual search have significantly changed the way people discover and access content online.
For those who want to figure out how to sell Amazon products and make money off it, this course on 2017 Affiliate Marketing + SEO Strategy could be ideal for you. It’s a quick course that teaches how to build an amazon affiliate website, brushes you on the latest SEO techniques but may not be enough if you are looking at an advanced curriculum. Details here.
The criteria and metrics can be classified according to its type and time span. Regarding the type, we can either evaluate these campaigns "Quantitatively" or "Qualitatively". Quantitative metrics may include "Sales Volume" and "Revenue Increase/Decrease". While qualitative metrics may include the enhanced "Brand awareness, image and health" as well as the "relationship with the customers".

Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself.
More recently, companies have sought to merge their advertising messages into editorial content or valuable services. Examples include Red Bull's Red Bull Media House streaming Felix Baumgartner's jump from space online, Coca-Cola's online magazines, and Nike's free applications for performance tracking.[18] Advertisers are also embracing social media[22][23] and mobile advertising; mobile ad spending has grown 90% each year from 2010 to 2013.[24]:13
Google Analytics & E-Commerce Analytics certified, Amit Kothiyal has 9+ years of experience in digital marketing. Currently he is working in a stellar digital marketing company TIS India Business Consultants Pvt ltd. since March 2005. He has helped numerous brands establish their online niche with his out of the box internet marketing strategies and lead generation capabilities. He is proactive on Google Plus and twitter to share his experiences with similar kind of professionals across the globe.
This is why so many people are trying to run paid traffic to affiliate offers, but that’s also quite challenging in its own right because unless you have every little facet dialed in, such as the offer, landing page, & ad. Your ad performance (CPC & CTR) won’t be good enough to still be profitable. Remember now you have to pay for every click so if you don’t got everything perfect you could easily lose money or spend lots of money, only to break even or make little bit of profit.
I come from an unsuccessful background of web design/SEO. I blogged because I knew it was good for SEO, but my articles didn’t monetize. I took a leap of faith and dropped my clients to figure out blogging/affiliate marketing. I was good at website speed optimization and knew hosting was the #1 factor. After some research, I saw SiteGround was #1 in most Facebook polls and had a great reputation with generous affiliate commissions. So I wrote tutorials on website speed… how to configure WordPress cache plugins, hosting reviews, and other speed-related topics. Usually near the end of a post I would say “Oh, here’s why you should switch to SiteGround” with evidence on why they’re the best… polls, tweets, load time improvements, etc. That’s when things got good. Now I have 0 clients and the freedom to do live my life. I wrote this tutorial because I’m actually excited to help people do the same – without the BS.

We have the capability to work with our clients’ internal content, creative, and email marketing teams or handle the whole campaign for them. We incorporate our proven strategic consulting services as part of our Email Marketing offerings in order to help our partner clients develop effective strategies for building their email lists. These consulting services include assistance with event planning, creative design, website and landing page email capture, and much more. We help our clients not only with engagement but new email acquisition, list segmentation and list cleansing.


The commission machine is a training program by Michael Cheney that helps affiliate marketers make sells and earn good commission. The training program in the form of light-hearted and easy to follow video tutorial. In the videos, Michael explains and teaches his affiliate strategy with such a friendly tone that viewers immediately feel captivated and at home.
If you value taking your time to make sure everything is right, you don’t want to partner with a company that cuts corners and focuses on producing quick campaigns. It will make it hard for your business to work with that Internet marketing company. If you want to have the most effective campaign, you need to partner with an Internet marketing company that is on the same page as your business.
Affiliate marketing is an ideal solution for those looking to gain control of their own income by focusing on performance-based revenue options. Working in tandem with a seller, a motivated affiliate marketer will be able to achieve a passive income from the comfort of their home without worrying about producing their own product or service. Although the success of the job does depend on the affiliate’s marketing skills, it can prove to be an effective way to meet your income goals as either a primary career or a profitable second job.

Marketing managers need to be conversant in every element of a marketing campaign, and considering the importance of an Internet presence in any marketing plan today, this means having a clear understanding of Internet marketing from start to finish. A marketing manager should have confidence in his or her team and know how to facilitate work efficiency and communication between coworkers. This keeps each project on schedule and helps create a relaxed work environment.
A disadvantage of digital advertising is the large amount of competing goods and services that are also using the same digital marketing strategies. For example, when someone searches for a specific product from a specific company online, if a similar company uses targeted advertising online then they can appear on the customer's home page, allowing the customer to look at alternative options for a cheaper price or better quality of the same product or a quicker way of finding what they want online.
Advertising Products of interest are the Reach Generator which guarantees that advertisers reach 75% of their fans each month, and around 50% each week, according to Facebook (based on tests conducted last year). These larger ads will be always on, rather than displayed according a Cost Per Click (CPC) or a Cost per Mille (CPM) model, and will appear on the right of the page, in news feeds and mobile devices. Premium on Facebook distributes ads to non-fans, i.e. entirely new audiences, and can be viewed at the log-out screen, as well as in the same places as Reach Generator.
LinkConnector is something of a mixed bag, so it’s probably best for experienced affiliates who have become disillusioned with other networks and are looking to expand. LinkConnector’s bizarre mix of high-quality products and a low-quality dashboard make it hard to truly assess its viability, but their exclusive deals with some vendors can make it a true home run for publishers working in certain niches.

As with offline advertising, industry participants have undertaken numerous efforts to self-regulate and develop industry standards or codes of conduct. Several United States advertising industry organizations jointly published Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioral Advertising based on standards proposed by the FTC in 2009.[109] European ad associations published a similar document in 2011.[110] Primary tenets of both documents include consumer control of data transfer to third parties, data security, and consent for collection of certain health and financial data.[109]:2–4 Neither framework, however, penalizes violators of the codes of conduct.[111]
The return on investment (ROI) I’ve got from using GetResponse has been nothing short of remarkable. If you consider that I generated over $2 million worth of business directly from email marketing then the small outlay required to use the GetResponse service is a drop in the ocean. I’ve grown my list from 0 to over 100,000 users in a relatively short period of time and still heavily rely on email marketing as the number one main source of income for my business.

For me I would choose a program with Recurring commission. You can build a real passive income. Its the best way to go! One suggestion is contact companies who sell services and ask if you can sell their service for them. Sometimes popular affiliate programs like these have just way too many people trying to sell their service. I personally went to sitecare.ca and asked them if I could sell their service and I couldn’t be happier! So find a service you believe in and go for it!


Is your eCommerce website powered by the most popular tools in the industry? If you’re not using WordPress + WooCommerce, then the answer is “No”. According to BuiltWith, WooCommerce powers 39% of all eCommerce websites on the Internet. I already knew that WordPress has dominant market share, but I was happy to see that more and more online stores and merchants…

The best thing you can do to make money online is to truly love what you’re doing. If you’re reviewing jeans, then you’d better really like wearing denim! If you want to share ingredients and products you use to make delicious meals, you’d best enjoy a good recipe. If you’re rating cars, then you need to already know a lot about them. The point is, your interests will help inspire the way that you make money online and make it seem like less of a chore—especially at first, when there isn’t as much payoff.


This is great for you because the products literally sell themselves, and as a 7 figure franchisee you get to keep 100% commissions on every sale that you generate promoting it which includes upsells, downsells, recurring products, and the high ticket backend product that I am talking about in this blog post the 7 figure franchisee business opportunity.
If an affiliate changes the terms of its program, your revenues could be directly affected. Choosing the wrong affiliates can also be problematic if your blog or website audience doesn't feel compelled to buy their products or services. With the affiliate-marketing industry experiencing a boom, you’ll also have to contend with competition from other marketers shilling the same affiliate products.
Over the last 20 years, I have seen lots of training courses. I agree with most of your experts. Site Build It was the first good training course I took shortly after Ken Envoy launched it. I have gone the Affiliorama route and thought it was a good program for beginners. At the time I took the course, there weren’t many options for niches. I have heard good things about Chris Farrell’s program but personally have not taken it. Wealthy Affiliate is by far the best program. Members learn to build an online business regardless of the niche(s) they select. Wealthy Affiliate also has a very strong support system in place. The active community of members means people can get their questions answered quickly.
Google's core algorithms and its propensity to shroud its data in layers of obscurity is not something new. However, it is critical to any understanding of marketing on the internet simply because this visibility is at the heart of everything else that you do. Forget about social media and other forms of marketing for the time being. Search engine optimization (SEO) offers up the proverbial key to near-limitless amounts of traffic on the web.
Email marketing: Email can be an effective way to maintain a connection between your business and its customers. You can purchase email addresses of customers and prospective customers, but the best results usually come from emails collected on your website. You can entice people to give you their emails through a quality free offer, such as a downloadable resource, called a lead magnet. Once you have their email, you can send a newsletter, special offers, and other information your target market would be interested in—as long as you follow laws and regulations around email marketing.

The collection of user information by publishers and advertisers has raised consumer concerns about their privacy.[28][60] Sixty percent of Internet users would use Do Not Track technology to block all collection of information if given an opportunity.[92][93] Over half of all Google and Facebook users are concerned about their privacy when using Google and Facebook, according to Gallup.[94]

For me I would choose a program with Recurring commission. You can build a real passive income. Its the best way to go! One suggestion is contact companies who sell services and ask if you can sell their service for them. Sometimes popular affiliate programs like these have just way too many people trying to sell their service. I personally went to sitecare.ca and asked them if I could sell their service and I couldn’t be happier! So find a service you believe in and go for it!
Business "LIKES": Businesses are actually bribing people to like them. Some people are offering discounts on their products when people offer to "LIKE" them. People are doing webinars and at the end of the webinars they are not asking you to buy their products, they are asking you to "LIKE" their Business Fan page. The reason why "LIKES" are so important is that when you like something all your friends and people following you are able to see what you liked. They may also follow your links and like what you liked to be like you.
Target 1-2 Keywords Per Article – until you can successfully rank for 1 keyword for an article, don’t try targeting 2. Once you get the hang of it and are ready to write an article around 2, choose a secondary keyword that is a synonym of your primary keyword. An example would be “Slow WordPress Site” and “Why Is WordPress Slow.” Then craft your article title/SEO title/meta description to mention individual words of each – while making them read nicely.

Although it differs from spyware, adware often uses the same methods and technologies. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware, what impact it had, and how it could damage their brands. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly, especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies, thus resulting in a decline of commissions. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user, who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer.
Social media marketing: In an increasingly connected world where consumers expect the companies they do business with to engage with them, social media is an ideal way to interact with prospects and customers. The key to social media marketing success is focusing on the platforms where you're most likely to find your target market, whether it's Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, or Pinterest. To make sure you're not wasting time with your social media efforts, develop a strategy and content plan, and research tools that will help make the posting easier, such as Hootsuite or Buffer.
Don’t set a goal to write 3 blog posts a day… set a goal to write 1 blog post a week and make that post super helpful, long, and filled with information that is so valuable you will say “yeah, people will link to that.” 90% of my traffic/affiliate income comes from just 20 tutorials, many of which are 5+ years old. But I am constantly updating them to make the content better.
This is great for you because the products literally sell themselves, and as a 7 figure franchisee you get to keep 100% commissions on every sale that you generate promoting it which includes upsells, downsells, recurring products, and the high ticket backend product that I am talking about in this blog post the 7 figure franchisee business opportunity.
If you’re in the WordPress industry like I am (whether it be design, development, or SEO) I have accumulated quite the list of WordPress affiliate programs. I excluded those I found unsuccessful or pay too little to make a profit from, specifically ThemeForest, Creative Market, and low quality theme stores like Template Monster. Hosting pays well and I wrote a tutorial for SiteGround’s affiliate program and StudioPress themes which are my 2 highest paying affiliates. Those tutorials have tons of screenshots/social proof especially for SiteGround.
Deliver value no matter what: Regardless of who you are and what you're trying to promote, always deliver value, first and foremost. Go out of your way to help others by carefully curating information that will assist them in their journey. The more you focus on delivering value, the quicker you'll reach that proverbial tipping point when it comes to exploding your fans or followers.
The publisher ad server then communicates with a supply-side platform server. The publisher is offering ad space for sale, so they are considered the supplier. The supply side platform also receives the user's identifying information, which it sends to a data management platform. At the data management platform, the user's identifying information is used to look up demographic information, previous purchases, and other information of interest to advertisers.
Just think about any relationship for a moment. How long you've known a person is incredibly important. It's not the be-all-end-all, but it is fundamental to trust. If you've known someone for years and years and other people that you know who you already trust can vouch for that person, then you're far more likely to trust them, right? But if you've just met someone, and haven't really vetted them so to speak, how can you possibly trust them?

Search traffic remains one of the major sources of traffic and conversions to any website. Keep your organic search visibility in mind when working on your most important “money pages” (i.e. those that drive direct sales). In this article I’ll go you through both basic and advanced keyword research tactics for your product pages that will also positively impact conversions. Keyword research lies at the heart of any marketing campaign,… [Read More…]
Top 40 internet marketing blogs you should start reading in 2018. When you’re starting out in the internet marketing realm, there is A LOT to learn and marketing courses can take weeks, months or even YEARS to complete and can get to be upwards of $1,000. But now, in the age of all things internet, you can save all that time and money, by simply reading a blog on the subject you’re interested in.
For me I would choose a program with Recurring commission. You can build a real passive income. Its the best way to go! One suggestion is contact companies who sell services and ask if you can sell their service for them. Sometimes popular affiliate programs like these have just way too many people trying to sell their service. I personally went to sitecare.ca and asked them if I could sell their service and I couldn’t be happier! So find a service you believe in and go for it!

Hi Jamie, awesome content that is very helpful esp with the resources, links and the rich discussions. Want to start e-commerce and blog for money…selling others products, want to go full on with this, tired of the daily routine crunch working for others. I live in a developing country (PNG) that has high internet costs (work still in progress with getting rates down…) so will see how I go with your posts. Any advise? Don’t have a website yet, have to build one I guess….
In this new world of digital transparency brands have to be very thoughtful in how they engage with current and potential customers. Consumers have an endless amount of data at their fingertips especially through social media channels, rating and review sites, blogs, and more. Unless brands actively engage in these conversations they lose the opportunity for helping guide their brand message and addressing customer concerns.
Internet entrepreneurs are signing up for this social networking website so that they can market their solutions or expert services. Facebook has an section where you can describe yourself, interests and add you business website URL. You are going to absolutely be able to successfully market place your web site on Facebook if you follow the Facebook guidelines. There are so many business groups online, you can literally learn to grow your business overnight.
I want to do an “inspirational” post to help newbies see that affiliate marketing is a long-range game plan, not a “get rich quick” scheme. Looking for those willing to share how long it took to get the first affiliate sale and a bit of insight into how you did it. Of course, your name and your website/blog link will be included. You can share it here, or email me.
888.com is a premium gaming destination and a well established name in the casino and poker circuit. Its site offers numerous sub-brands including 888sport, 888ladies, 888bingo, 888casino and 888poker, as well as ReefClub Casino. The 888 family of companies attract millions of players, and the company provides affiliates with frequent promotions to keep players interested.
Can you make money with affiliate marketing? The short answer is yes, affiliate programs can earn a extra money and even a full-time income from home. The long answer is a little more complicated. Like any home income venture, success comes not so much from what you choose to do to make money, but whether or not you do what needs to be done correctly and consistently.
Sponsored search (also called sponsored links, search ads, or paid search) allows advertisers to be included in the sponsored results of a search for selected keywords. Search ads are often sold via real-time auctions, where advertisers bid on keywords.[19]:118[53] In addition to setting a maximum price per keyword, bids may include time, language, geographical, and other constraints.[19]:118 Search engines originally sold listings in order of highest bids.[19]:119 Modern search engines rank sponsored listings based on a combination of bid price, expected click-through rate, keyword relevancy and site quality.[21]
The problem with affiliate marketing, like many other home business options, are the so-called gurus and get-rich-quick programs that suggest affiliate marketing can be done fast and with little effort. Odds are you've read claims of affiliate marketing programs that say you can make hundreds of thousands of dollars a month doing almost nothing ("Three clicks to rich!"). Or, they suggest you can set up your affiliate site, and then forget it, except to check your bank deposits.
Unlike a traditional network, our Branded Sign Up links allow you to onboard exclusive partners that are not listed in a public Marketplace. These are YOUR exclusive partners, not ours. As such, they should know they are working directly with you. With our branded interface, you can ensure their full experience looks and feels like ‘you’, from joining your program through to every payment.
Another disadvantage is that even an individual or small group of people can harm image of an established brand. For instance Dopplegnager is a term that is used to disapprove an image about a certain brand that is spread by anti-brand activists, bloggers, and opinion leaders. The word Doppelganger is a combination of two German words Doppel (double) and Ganger (walker), thus it means double walker or as in English it is said alter ego. Generally brand creates images for itself to emotionally appeal to their customers. However some would disagree with this image and make alterations to this image and present in funny or cynical way, hence distorting the brand image, hence creating a Doppelganger image, blog or content (Rindfleisch, 2016).
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